Verbs can have different forms when they are transitive (have an object that receives the action) or intransitive (do not have an object that receives the action). The verb ‘destroy’ has the transitive form ŋaany when it has the object dɔ̈ ‘thing’ as in nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be dɔ̈ ŋaany ‘person wants him to destroy it’. But this verb has the intransitive form ŋääny when there is no object as in nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be ŋaany ‘person wants him to destroy’.
|Transitive||Nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be dɔ̈ ŋaany.||[ŋááɲ]||Person wants him to destroy it.|
|Intransitive||Nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be ŋääny.||[ŋꜜá̤á̤ɲ]||Person wants him to destroy .|
|Intransitive||Nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be teu.||[téᵘ]||Person wants him to live.|
|Transitive||Nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be dɔ̈ ceŋ.||[céŋ]||Person wants him to wear it.|
|Intransitive||Nuɛ̈ɛ̈r göör be ceŋ.||[céŋ]||Person wants him to wear.|
Some verbs (such as teu ‘live’) are intransitive and have no transitive form. Other verbs (such as ceŋ ‘wear’) have the same form when used as a transitive verb or as an intransitive verb.
In the dictionary, verbs are listed in the infinitive form, such as following göör be ‘wants to’. When the transitive form of a verb differs from the intransitive, both forms are listed after the correct abbreviation, either v.tr or v.in. The definitions of transitive verbs have the abbreviation s.m. which means that either ‘someone’ or ‘something’ receives the action. The intransitive form is shown in parentheses (ŋääny destroy) after a transitive verb. And the transitive form is shown in parentheses (ŋaany destroy s.m.) after an intransitive verb.
|Transitive||v.tr||ŋaany||destroy s.m. (ŋääny destroy)|
|Intransitive||v.in||ŋääny||destroy (ŋaany destroy s.m.)|
No form is shown in parentheses after an intransitive verb that has no transitive form. The abbreviation v shows a verb has the same form when used as a transitive verb or as an intransitive verb.